In UNIX-like techniques, the highest command studies priceless system info like working processes and useful resource utilization. It exhibits processor exercise and kernel-managed duties in real-time. It’s one of many staple instruments for system directors.On this information, take a look at how you can use the highest command in Linux.

High command utilization

The highest command will come pre-installed on any UNIX/Linux system. There’s no want to put in any further bundle to make use of it.

Examine high model

Assuming your distro is up-to-date, your system ought to have the newest model of the highest. Examine the model of the highest.

Top Linux Command-Hint for Linux

Default window

Run the highest command with none parameter. This may load the default display of the highest.

Top Linux Command-Hint for Linux

It’ll output a real-time report of assorted info. Let’s have a fast breakdown of it.

The primary heading portion studies {hardware} useful resource utilization. The primary line consists of the time, the period of time the system is working, the variety of logged-in customers, and the load common. The second line studies the variety of duties together with their states.

Right here’s a fast record of all of the states. The worth of every state describes how a lot time the CPU spends executing processes of that state.

  • us: Executing processes working below the userspace.
  • sy: Executing system kernel processes.
  • ni: Executing processes with a manually configured good worth.
  • id: The period of time CPU stays idle.
  • wa: Ready time for I/O to finish.
  • hello: Servicing {hardware} interrupts.
  • si: Servicing software program interrupts.
  • st: Time misplaced for working digital machines, also referred to as “steal time”.

The fourth line describes the system reminiscence utilization, for instance, complete bodily reminiscence quantity and the way a lot of it’s used, free, buffered, or cached.

The second a part of the output is a desk itemizing all of the working processes. Right here’s a fast clarification of all of the columns constituting the desk. All these clarify varied attributes of the associated course of.

  • PID: The method ID of the method.
  • USER: The consumer the method is working below.
  • PR: Processor precedence.
  • NI: Course of good worth.
  • VIRT: Digital reminiscence used.
  • RES: Resident reminiscence used.
  • SHR: Shared reminiscence used.
  • S: Course of standing. It could of 5 sorts described under
    • D: Uninterruptible sleep
    • R: Working
    • S: Sleeping
    • T: Traced
    • Z: Zombie
  • %CPU: CPU time consumed by the method.
  • %MEM: Share of bodily reminiscence used.
  • TIME+: Complete CPU time used (in millisecond).
  • COMMAND: The command that’s the method is working with.

I assume that’s loads of info to digest. It’s alright to take time and be taught them slowly.

Scrolling

High studies your entire record of working processes. Because it’s a command-line instrument, the navigation is a bit totally different than you’d count on in a GUI instrument.

To navigate, use the Up and Down arrow keys. Further navigation keys embody Dwelling, Web page Up, Web page Down, and Finish. To maneuver the method record sideways, use the Left/Proper arrow keys.

Top Linux Command-Hint for Linux

Change numeric unit

By default, the reminiscence values are displayed in kibibytes. Nevertheless, for sensible functions, it’s not a nice format. To change the unit to different models, press “E”. The out there unit codecs are kibibytes, mebibytes, gibibytes, tebibytes, pebibytes, and exbibytes. Urgent “e” will do the identical factor.

Change abstract content material

This impacts the primary part of the highest output. Press “l” to toggle the primary line on/off.

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In case your system is working a multi-core CPU, then the highest can report info for particular person cores. Press “1” to toggle info on a per-core foundation.

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Need to change the CPU shows? Press “t”. On the primary press, it’ll change the graphs to ASCII.

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On the second press, it’ll change the graphs to strong block characters.

Top Linux Command-Hint for Linux

Press “t” as soon as extra and the CPU show and process abstract will fully disappear.

Top Linux Command-Hint for Linux

To do the identical with the reminiscence and swap reminiscence, press “m”.

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Top Linux Command-Hint for Linux

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Highlighting

The default display of the highest is simply black and white. How about spicing issues up? Press “z” to colorize the show.

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To spotlight the working duties, press “y”. Should you press “x”, the highest will spotlight the columns that it makes use of to type the method record. The daring and reversed textual content spotlight will be toggled by urgent “b”.

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Full command line

Within the case of working processes, we are able to toggle between simply the method identify and course of identify together with the total command. Press “c” to toggle.

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To see a tree-style view the place processes have been launched/spawned by different processes, press “V”.

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Filter output by the consumer

By default, the highest will present the processes from all of the customers. To see the processes working below a selected course of, press “u”. The highest will ask for the consumer identify or UID.

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Energetic duties

To see solely the lively duties, press “I”.

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To revert the adjustments, press “I” once more.

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Variety of processes to show

By default, the highest will report all of the processes in a protracted desk. Nevertheless, we are able to manually set the variety of processes high will show no matter the variety of processes working. I feel it’s a helpful trick in very particular eventualities.

To restrict the shows, press “n”. The highest will ask for the variety of processes to show. By default, the worth is 0 (limitless).

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Change course of precedence

Each single working course of can have a pleasant worth to them. This good worth determines the precedence of the method amongst all of the working processes. The highest permits manually defining the good worth.

To manually decide the good worth of a course of, press “r”. The highest will ask for the PID.

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After getting into the PID, the highest will ask for the brand new good worth.

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Kill course of

In case you need to manually terminate a course of, the highest permits you to ship a termination sign. To ship a termination sign, we’ll be needing the PID and the sign identify.

Press “okay”. The highest will ask for the PID.

Top Linux Command-Hint for Linux

Top Linux Command-Hint for Linux

As soon as the PID is entered, the highest will then ask for the sign to ship. By default, it’ll be the SIGTERM (kill) sign. More often than not, it’s the sign you need to ship. For a whole record of all of the out there indicators, take a look at the sign man web page.

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Miscellaneous shortcuts

No matter adjustments you’ve made to how high behaves, it gained’t be loaded until you put it aside. To avoid wasting the present preset, press “W”.

By default, the highest will refresh the knowledge on the default worth. To outline your customized worth, press “d”.

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To carry out an prompt fast refresh, press Spacebar.

Last ideas

That is simply the tip of the iceberg. The highest is a sophisticated but highly effective instrument for monitoring your system. There are many tutorials out there on-line. Examine them out if you wish to grasp the highest command.

Interested by monitoring the system I/O? Then iotop is what you’re searching for. Try how you can monitor disk I/O utilizing iotop.

Pleased computing!

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