Every day that we exist on earth is another day that we exploit the planet for our convenience. The pollution we generate due to transportation tops it all, contaminating the environment with the poisonous emissions from our vehicles. The Tier 4 Final Technology can change the entire narrative and transform the way the automobile sector has dealt with emissions and pollution until now.
The legislation regulating exhaust emissions from off-road vehicles became extremely stringent in 2014. All off-road engines with outputs over 75 kW in the US and 130 kW in the EU had to meet Tier 4 Final requirements, which reduced NOx and PM emissions by 99% over the pre-legislation levels. The tier 4 final technology is a step in the right direction to cut down emissions and ensure drivers, riders, and pedestrians inhale safer air.
What we often overlook while upgrading to the technology available to us is its environmental pros and cons. The legislation of 2014 regulates various types of harmful exhaust emissions, including Nitrous Oxides (NOx) and Particulate Matter (PM) and the positive impact of lowering these levels cannot be underrated. Particulate Matter is commonly found in the form of black soot and smoke. Besides creating an unpleasant and toxic odor, they are a leading cause of lung irritation, which can eventually turn into something as serious as cancer and/or heart diseases. On the other hand, Nitrous oxides are responsible for creating acid rain and are at the helm of producing ground-level ozone and smog.
Selective Catalytic Reduction Technology
Unfortunately, there is a catch in the process of eliminating these two harmful substances; when NOx is decreased, PM will increase, and when the PM levels get lower, the NOx levels rise. The solution to this tricky problem can be to improve the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology, using which AdBlue is injected into the exhaust line, which reacts with NOx in the catalytic converter and turns the harmful compounds into nitrogen and water.
DPF vs. SCR Technology
Another alternative to this is the DPF system, which is comparatively costlier. To be able to keep up with tier 4 final technology, the DPF system demands a configuration in their base engines’ combustion rate to produce low levels of NOx but emit high levels of PM. The idea was to add a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF), which captures the soot and incinerates it down to harmless ash periodically in a process called regeneration. Although this sounds efficient and easy, this approach has its significant drawbacks. It demands high fuel consumption, and in a world troubled by drying resources, we cannot afford it. Also, a DPF system needs costly maintenance and must be replaced regularly, which makes it a financial burden. Basically, a DPF system requires many extra parts like air pumps, compressors, and ignition coils, all of which require regular maintenance, making the set up unreliable. So, even though it may be the easy way out to meet Tier 4 Final requirements, improving the SCR technology is a better idea in the long run.
The tier 4 final technology demands a new line of powerful, low-maintenance, low-emissions engines that burn less fuel while working in its optimum capacity. The use of SCR in Tier 4 Final technology engines is more uncomplicated and straightforward, all the while being environmentally friendly with fewer parts and lesser maintenance than a DPF. Tier 4 Final solution uses Light Exhaust Gas Recirculation (light EGR) because NOx is created at very high temperatures and the EGR contributes to reducing it by lowering the peak combustion temperature. So, to reduce our carbon footprint and conserve our limited resources, it is vital that we make smart choices and that the automobile industry as a whole contributes to the process of pollution and emission control.