In an earlier blog post I started to check out the idea of a “missionary mandate” for Israel in the Old Testimony. In this and also the following blog post I check out the history for this concept, particularly, God’s worry for the countries in the OT. This blog post shows the point of view of the Pentateuch, and also in the following blog post I’ll take into consideration the point of view of the Psalter and also the prophet Isaiah.
Israel and also the Countries in the Pentateuch
God’s worry for the countries starts and also finishes the story of Bible. The very first eleven phases of Genesis concentrate on the developed order, consisting of the beginnings and also very early background of humanity. God’s phone call of Abram in Genesis 12 is a straight reaction to God’s transactions with the countries in Genesis 11, including their dispersal following the Tower of Babel. Similarly the Scriptures finishes with God’s function and also worry for the redemption of individuals from every country, people, language, and also ethnic background (Rev 5:9; 14:6). God’s worry for the countries therefore creates an inclusio or envelope framework mounting the whole tale of Bible. We see this worry in critical messages from the OT that provide a structure for God’s activity towards the countries in the OT and also later on in the NT.
Genesis 1: 26–28; 3: 15
God’s prepare for the developed order is bracketed by 2 developments. The Scriptures start with the development of deep space in Genesis 1– 2 and also end with the summary of the extra marvelous brand-new development in Discovery 21–22 In its beginning and also consummation God’s development offers to show up God’s magnificence. God shows his magnificence by his objective to expand his subjugate all development via his picture holders. Stylistic and also etymological attributes recommend that the story of Genesis 1– 2 concentrates on 2 key measurements of the picture of God: (1) the upright measurement, stressing relational residential or commercial properties, especially below of humanity to God (fellowship, character, prayer, principles), and also therefore male’s priestly function; and also (2) the straight measurement, stressing the useful residential or commercial properties (self-consciousness, self-reliance, creative thinking, knowledge) and also therefore his kingly function. The human race is the relational and also depictive priest-king, that both associates with God as clergyman and also stands for God as vice-regent. Guy accomplishes this by working as God’s representative to develop God’s authority over deep space. In the autumn, nevertheless, humanity falls short in this function. Transgression mars God’s great development and also disrupts the magnificent objective to control the planet. Adam’s transgression conditions the consistency of all human connections, consisting of the partnership with God, those with various other people, and also those with the development itself.
Yahweh penalizes transgression by eradicating Adam and also Eve from the yard. Yet God additionally starts settlement via his redemptive job, which makes it possible for male to recover his function as God’s rep. Yahweh increases up mediatorial numbers to perform his objectives for humanity after each judgment, prefigured initially in the assured seed of Gen 3:15 This last knowledgeable highlights a number of essential principles worrying God’s conserving objective towards all individuals. Redemption comes via God’s campaign, as God brings a thoughtful reaction to male’s transgression. Redemption supplies wish for all humankind instead of just one section of humankind. Redemption comes via a conciliator that belongs materially and also naturally to humankind and also yet that endures in his best victory. These very early knowledgeables prepared for objective by exposing that God’s function for development is global and also concentrates particularly on his partnership to humankind. Because the autumn God will certainly achieve this function by giving settlement via a mediatory number.
Genesis 12:1– 3
The historic context where Abram arises is defined by disobedience, turmoil, and also department. In reaction Yahweh picks a specific to function as his arbitrator to start the procedure of recovering order, consistency, and also true blessing to the globe. Within the context, Gen 12:1– 3 has a critical area. It presents the succeeding patriarchal stories and also establishes them in regard to God’s taking care of humankind in Genesis 1–11 Structurally and also thematically the true blessing of Abraham is linked to God’s objectives for the globe. The agreement therefore shows both particularism and also universalism.
Regarding framework, Yahweh’s command to leave Ur comes before a collection of 4 cohortatives which lay out Yahweh’s intents relative to Abram: “I will make you into a great nation”; “I will bless you”; “I will make your name great”; and also “I will bless those who bless you.” The last stipulation of v. 3 disrupts this chain: “In you all the families of the earth will be blessed.” The analysis of this last verb is the essence of the flow. Although a number of analyses have actually been used for the definition, the very best feeling is to comprehend the verb as passive as a result of the spoken stem and also the context. The passive represents that the countries will certainly be honored via Abraham, stressing his company as God’s picked methods of true blessing the globe. The emphasis of the context gets on God’s authority and also objective to honor, out any kind of capability for the countries to discover true blessing.
Regarding style, Abram is honored in raw terms. Words honor happens 5 times in this system, when for each time words curse has actually happened so far in the Genesis story. This is the very first or preliminary expression of the Abrahamic Agreement, reiterated and also created in Genesis 15 and also17 Yahweh assures Abram land, seed, and also true blessing. The last part connections straight to his initial style for humankind and also to his salvific and also doxological objectives for the countries. The term honor return God’s true blessing on humankind in Gen 1: 28, where Yahweh costs humanity as his picture holders to be worthwhile and also to increase, fill up the planet, and also control it. Such a famous function for the Abrahamic Agreement leads Christopher Wright in conclusion that “the Abrahamic covenant is the fount and origin of biblical mission in its redemptive sense.”
Exodus 19:4– 6
In this flow Yahweh offers Israel with an unique and also austere difficulty. Their obedience to the Mosaic Regulation positions them in a blessed placement. Their function is to offer not just as a country ethically distinctive from the bordering individuals. Instead, their agreement obedience lugs around the world effects and also comprises them as God’s one-of-a-kind servant country. They would certainly function as God’s unique rep to mirror his personality and also to moderate his visibility and also magnificence to the bordering countries.
Exodus 19 operates as a joint in between the exodus occasion and also the providing of the Regulation on Sinai. The flow starts Moses’ discussion of the Mosaic agreement. In the bigger context Yahweh assures to be the one-of-a-kind God to his individuals, while they promise to live as his covenanted individuals. Within the framework of the system, the last stipulation of v. 3 (“Thus you shall say to the house of Jacob”) features in tandem with the last stipulation of v. 6 (“These are the words that you shall speak to the people of Israel”) to create an inclusio. This framework gadget concentrates on Yahweh’s stated objective and also suitable for Israel. As Wright sums up, this area “defines the identity and agenda God has for Israel and sets both in the context of God’s own action and intention.” Knowledgeables 5– 6 are a conditional sentence including a protasis complied with by a double apodosis. The problem (“if you obey my voice and keep my covenant”) operates distinctly from the independent and also unalterable Abrahamic Agreement, which Yahweh establishes sovereignly with Abraham. Below the problem relates not to Israel’s standing as choose country, for that is based in the Abrahamic Agreement. Instead, the problem connects, as McClain sums up, to Israel’s royal and also mediatorial task in her very own land relative to Yahweh and also the countries. Her popular placement as the mediatorial kingdom involves both a guarantee and also a perfect. As a guarantee, Israel delights in popular country standing as she consistently offers the Lord and also therefore satisfies her function as servant country. As a perfect, these true blessings involve fulfillment as component of her long lasting standing as God’s picked individuals on the basis of the Abrahamic Agreement.
3 pledges or expressions within the system envelop Israel’s function as Yahweh’s popular servant country. Israel will certainly function as (1) an unique belongings amongst all the countries; (2) a kingdom of clergymans; and also (3) a divine country. Yahweh initially assures that if Israel follows she will certainly be his “treasured possession among all peoples” (v. 5b). The term definition “treasured possession” is normally made “valued property,” “personal possession,” or “treasure,” (BDB, 688; HALOT, 742). The term is testified two times in Ugaritic, where it shows up alongside “servant” and also shares the partnership within suzerainty-vassal agreements whereby the liege is determined as the unique home or valued belongings of the god. The term therefore highlights that Yahweh has proprietorships over the committed and also concentrated solution of his liege. Israel therefore inhabits a blessed placement as the certain country whom God payments to be his unique and also loyal rep towards the countries of the planet. Second, Yahweh assures that Israel will certainly be a kingdom of clergymans. This last expression has actually occasioned much discussion. While a minimum of 4 choices have actually been recommended for the definition of the expression, one of the most likely feeling is an attributive genitive expression: “kingdom of priests” or “priestly kingdom.” This classification is one of the most typical usage and also definition of the construct-genitive. It is additionally most constant with the definition of the very first Hebrew term, which almost everywhere signifies “kingdom” instead of “king,” and also matches much better with the identical expression, “holy nation.” The emphasis would certainly be Israel’s standing as the world of God’s theocratic regime and also her feature in a mediatorial or priestly capability relative to the various other countries. Third, Yahweh assures that Israel will certainly work as “a holy nation.” The focus below gets on Israel’s function as an honest design for the countries, showing God’s very own personality. Israel is to be the standard of theocratic policy that emits the magnificence of God and also brings in the countries to appropriate prayer.
Having actually checked the style of God’s worry for the countries in the Pentateuch, I’ll proceed following time by evaluating this concept in the Psalter and also in guide of Isaiah.
 Charles H. H. Scobie, “Israel and the Nations: An Essay in Biblical Theology,” TynBull 43 (1992): 285. I am indebted to the list below researches: Michael A. Grisanti, “The Missing Mandate: Missions in the Old Testament,” in Objectives in a New Centuries: Adjustment and also Difficulties in Globe Missions, ed. W. Edward Glenny and also William H. Smallman, 43–68 (Grand Rapids Kregel, 2000), 44–57; Craig Ott and also Stephen J. Strauss, Encountering Faith of Goal: Scriptural Structures, Historic Advancements, and also Contemporary Issues (Grand Rapids: Baker, 2010), 6–21
 This is one of the most typical use of the Niphal and also makes the very best feeling in the context (Waltke and also O’Connor, p. 395).
 Wright, “Old Testament and Christian Mission,” 39.
 Ibid., 40.
 Alva J. McClain, The Achievement of the Kingdom, 62–63
 See Walter C. Kaiser, Jr., “Exodus,” in The Expositor’s Scriptures Discourse, 2: 417.