Civil Layout structure

The main point of this article

  • Model of a building
  • How to create a layout

    • Step one. Temporary reference
    • Step two. Core indicator
    • Step three. Horizontal control
    • Step four. Vertical control
  • What is the process of designing a building?

    • Step one. Trenches
    • Step two. Low level digging
    • Step three. Frame construction
  • Construction control services
  • Construction plan
  • How to create a layout
  • What is the construction method
  • What is a building plan?
  • Construction planning methods
  • Construction control services
  • Construction plan

As soon as the building plan has been completed and the structural design, including foundation, has been completed, construction can begin.

Next, the first phase of the construction activity is the remediation of the site. The foundation trenches to be dug were then inserted. The digging lines marked on the site are called the building plan.

Layout structure

How to create a layout

  • Install the building after transferring the architectural proposal from the ground plan. It fixes the feature line points, supports, foundations, wall axis and other data and levels required.
  • The whole structure will be set to , because of this first set. Accurate display is an important part of this design work and errors are very costly and it takes a long time to correct.
  • The location and orientation of the structure is usually worked out by the engineers in the drawing.
  • The control points of the structure are indicated by. After that, all operations will continue.

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Step 1. Temporary reference value


  • The time reference is a fixed point of known altitude. This is the fixed point at which starts all level related operations.
  • A dowel or a steel wedge is then attached at the indicated location.
  • All drawings with levels and vertical dimensions , expressed in meters to three decimal places, are marked for the time indication.

Step 2. Baseline

Baseline in the building plan

  • Just create a baseline .
  • The reference line is the straight reference line on which the corners of the building are marked.
  • This sometimes coincides with the assembly line, but is not a problem.

Step 3. Horizontal control

Horizontal control Building layout

  • Horizontal controls are points also known as – coordinates relative to certain outputs.
  • The control points shall be used in such a way that each point on plan can be placed on the ground.

Step 4. Vertical controls

  • Vertical reference points are set for the vertical marker – often a wooden post in concrete.
  • These levels are usually set during the leveling phase with a theodolite at level .

What is the procedure for the distribution of buildings?

Horizontal control in building design

  • First mark the plan of building and attach line to corner post by nailing the top of the post.
  • The theodolite is placed to determine the angles to 90 degrees , then a rod is needed to find the straight line between the two points.
  • Corner posts are generally wooden posts, usually 50 mm x 50 mm, which are driven into the ground and marked with a nail in the middle.
  • The circumference is , marked with dry lime powder.
  • The profiled shields are mounted at a height of 0.6 to 1 m.
  • If the perimeter of building is more complex than the simple rectangle, then must be fixed with a few points.
  • Sometimes, for a building with an irregular shape, the first arrangement is a large rectangle that covers the whole building. Then is subtracted and an alternative can be made to obtain a layout.

In order to make a building plan, a few steps are carried out. These steps…

  • Locks
  • Open excavations
  • Framework building

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Step 1. Locks

  • The plan of trench was made for the excavation. Excavation work is carried out to dig walls, trenches, etc.
  • Then we need to know the position of slot , the width and the depth. The profiled panels must be 2 m from the slot.
  • Posts must be placed at the bottom of the slot for the marking at the top of the concrete strip.
  • Use a level to bring the corners of the wall from the intersection line to the mortar points in the foundation.
  • When digging trenches, all work must be carried out with great care; in particular, there is a risk of lateral collapse.

Step 2. Open excavations

  • The lowered level is set to , starting from the base level. The corner posts represent the fixed contours of the excavation, but is characterized by sand.
  • After checking the digging depth , the observation rails are mounted.
  • The travel switch then controls the notches between the profile plates .
  • Finally, the height of the wheelchair shall be at sight rail level minus the level of the excavated surface structure.

Step 3. Framework building

  • An executive building is one of the buildings connecting to grid. The intersections of grid are marked as the center point.
  • The position of the grid is determined using the theodolite and the intersection is marked with pins.
  • Once the grate is installed, it is ready to be excavated.

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Control lines

Construction control services

The control lines are used to calculate the horizontal alignment, the vertical alignment and the height. Control cables are used for various purposes in the construction industry.

Types of control cables

  • Vertical alignment reference line.
  • Horizontal alignment reference line.
  • Tangential profile control line.
  • Actual control line.
  • Confirm the control line.

Sometimes multiple control lines are used for the same purpose. Sometimes the control lines need some guidance.

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Construction plan

Construction plan

Plan of building possibility above and below ground the location of the building to be built.

The design diagram guarantees accurate and reliable operation of the for planning horizontal dimensions, height measurements and similar data.

The design scheme sometimes detects problems before they occur. The building plan also includes future excavations. Application of design layout –

  • Building diagram
  • Plate and channel
  • Sewerage, water, rainwater and utility services
  • Box line and column classification
  • Final evaluation
  • Roadworks

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Brief comment

Layout structure

  • For a simple floor plan of a building, for example B. a rectangle, the perimeter of the building is indicated by a line attached to the corner posts.
  • The nail at the top of the pin can also be used to fix the line.
  • The theodolite, square of site or square of construction is used to deactivate angle of 90 degrees for the residual angle .

What is the plan for building?

  • Plan of the building or structure shows a plan of the base on the ground plane as shown in drawing.
  • In this way, excavations can be carried out exactly where they are needed and the position and orientation of the building is accurately indicated.

What is a building plan

  • The floor plan of a building or structure shows a floor plan of the foundation on the ground plane as shown in drawing .
  • In this way, excavation work can be carried out exactly where it is needed and where the position and orientation of the building is indicated ( ).

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Construction planning methods

  • The design of a building is the process of transferring architectural proposals from the ground drawings.
  • It defines the location points for – property lines, foundations, columns, wall centres and other required structural elements. It also defines the correct size, angle and building height .

Control lines

  • The line to which this extra edge falls is , the so-called reference line. In general, in urban and industrial areas the distance to reference line is taken as one and a half from the centre of the carriageway.

Construction plan

Construction diagram is the possibility to specifically mark the location of the structure to be built above and below.

A typical construction plan provides an accurate and reliable working tool for a construction project, including planning, horizontal dimensions, height measurements and other similar data.

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